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UPES Assignment 2014 Power Transmission-Ass-2-2014J
Product Name : Power Transmission-Ass-2-2014J
Product Code : AC2
Category : UPES
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Section A (20 Marks)

Write short notes on any four of the following:

  1. Frequency Management
  2. Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Losses
  3. Encouraging FDI in Transmission
  4. Transmission Pricing
  5. Voltage Management

Section B (30 marks)

(Attempt any three)

  1. What do you mean by power supply security standards?
  2. What are the Security Standards come under Transmission system planning?
  3. Define transmission network.  Discuss the Other issues in transmission
  4. State the features of the Electricity Act, 2003.



Section C (50 marks)

(Attempt all questions. Every question carries 10 marks)


Read the case “ABB Launches World's First Low-Voltage Breaker for Energy Management and Smart Grid Communications” and answer the following questions.

Case Study: ABB Launches World's First Low-Voltage Breaker for Energy Management and Smart Grid Communications

ABB ( ) is a leader in power automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve their performance while lowering environmental impact. The ABB Group of companies operates in around 100 countries and employs about 145,000 people. The company - which  has a wide range of electric power, industrial motors, industrial automation and robotics offerings - has its North American headquarters in Cary, N.C. and employs 30,000 throughout the region.


ABB's latest innovation has potential to save energy and reduce emissions - equivalent to the electric consumption of 1.4 million US households and 4 million tons of CO2 - and help to prevent blackouts


CARY, N.C. -- ABB, the leading global power and automation technology group, today launched Emax 2, the world's first low-voltage circuit breaker with integrated energy management functions. Replacing existing traditional breakers with the Emax 2 breaker has the potential to achieve annual savings of 5.8 million megawatt-hours (MWh), or the electric consumption equivalent of 1.4 million US households per year.


These energy savings would reduce emissions by 4 million tons of CO(2), or the emissions of over 1 million cars, per year. For an individual building installation, a peak power reduction of up to 15 percent can be achieved by using Emax 2 in place of traditional breakers.


Breakers like the Emax 2 are used where protection and control of large amounts of energy are used in a low-voltage environment like industrial and commercial buildings, data centers or ships. The breaker contains a protection trip relay with an integrated power controller that measures and evaluates energy consumption, then manages the loads to maintain or reduce the peak power usage as determined by the user. This will also help prevent blackouts since the root cause is often peak demand exceeding supply.


To manage energy, the electricity supply to non-essential equipment is switched off and back on again as soon as acceptable power levels are reached. Intelligent decision making is achieved by a built in controller and software that uses complex algorithms to decide when it is appropriate to switch the power while maintaining the overall functionality or productivity of the connected equipment.


The breaker also has a communication module that allows it to share vital consumption and system reliability data directly with smart grid and other protocols.


"Breakers provide one of the largest untapped opportunities in the electric system to achieve energy savings. Breakers have been used to increase safety and protect electric circuits, but now for the first time we use them to save energy too," said Tarak Mehta, Head of ABB's Low Voltage products division.


"Because breakers are all around us, the total energy savings potential is massive. It's a great example of how we can use smart technology to reduce energy wastage. This is good news for the environment and for our customers who can achieve significant cost savings by switching to our new device," added Tarak.


The development of the new Emax 2 breaker took several years and was led by ABB's development center in Bergamo, Italy.


In 2012, ABB invested about $1.5 billion in research and development and continues to employ 7,000 technologists worldwide.



  1. Explain the innovations of ABB.
  2. Why did ABB wanted to enforce standardization across its operations?
  3. What is the meaning of “Emax 2” in this case study.
  4. "Breakers provide one of the largest untapped opportunities in the electric system to achieve energy savings”. Discuss the statement.
  5. Pen down the short briefing to the case study.
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